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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

THE BLAST FURNACE.
oxide (CO) the proportion of carbonic acid (C02) in the gases increases all the way to the top.
All the figures relating to vertical distances must he changed for every variation in the height of different furnaces, and the temperature of the tunnel head gases is different at every furnace, while the horizontal measurements on the drawing must be made to accord with the furnace practice on coke, ore, etc., but it has been deemed worth while to solve one definite problem as an example of the method which seems applicable to all similar investigations.
SEC. III.—The utilization and waste of heat.—Any discussion of the distribution of heat in a blast furnace must base itself on the investigations of Sir Lowthian Bell. In one of his last con-
TABLE II-C.. Distribution of Energy at Middlesborough and Pittsburg.
Table II-B shows that the English coke was 5 per cent, better than American
coke.    Hence with the same coke, the fuel in Pittsburg would have been
only 1788 Ibs. per ton.
	Equivalent in Pounds of Coke.		Per cent, of total Calorific Value	
	English.	American^	English,	American
Constant factors —	452 90	452 90	20.2 4.0	25.2 '5.0
				
Total ...... . .........................				
	542 58 56 68 210	542 36 41 49 80	24.2 2.6 25 2.6 9.4	30.2 2 0 2 3 2.7 45
Factors beyond the control of the smelter— Reduction of the metalloids ............				
Expulsion of COa, from limestone ...... Reduction of this C0a to CO ............				
				
Total ..... .... ........ . ..............				
	382 20 5 34 134	206 20 2 33 80	17.1 0 9 0.2 1.5 6.0	11.5 1.1 0.1 1 8 4.5
Factors more or less under control-Dissociation of CO ....................				
				
Decomposition of water in blast ........				
.Radiation cooling water , etc ........				
Total .................. . .............				
	193 99 1023	135 68    . 837	8.6 4 4 45.7	7.5 3.8 47.0
Tunnel head gases —				
Potential as CO ..... ....................				
Total ................................				
	1122	905	50.1	50.8
Grand Total .....................				
	2239	1788	100.0	100.0